æðaplöntur Almennt Blog blómplöntur byrkningar flora háplöntur Hörður Kristinsson Jón Baldur Vaka-Helgafell Þóra Ellen

Flora Iceland – flower plants and bugs

Flora Iceland – flower plants and bugs. 741 p. Ed. Vaka-Helgafell 2018
Authors: Hörður Kristinsson, Jón Baldur Hlíðberg, Þóra E. Þórhallsdóttir.

The guide is prepared in collaboration with the Icelandic Institute of Pure History.

In the autumn, no man passed by, that a new ebook was revealed in botany. Increased promoting within the mass media, that includes a singular “great deal” that “deals with all types of Icelandic flora”, no less. Nevertheless, it is removed from the truth, as a result of solely excessive plants or other varieties of vascular plants are mentioned, but neither algae nor mosses. The ebook is definitely excessive in interest, accommodates 740 pages in length in a big fraction and weighs 3.1 kg. – The authors of the textual content are two and one writer. Then it says that the e-book is made “in collaboration with the Icelandic Institute of Natural History”. It isn’t defined why that co-operation was concerned.

The identify of the guide, Flóra Íslands, first draws attention. Another ebook has been bearing this honorary identify because the 1901s, and she has since revealed two editions, 1924 and 1948. The writer is Stefán Stefánsson, principal of the varsity. Surprisingly, the selection is a guide identify that existed and is intently linked to Stephen's headmaster in individuals's minds. Management Board a natural science affiliation, which has the best of publication of Flóra Stefán, ought to have prevented such a failure. The ebook incorporates no abnormal “flowering book”, as a result of there are not any diagnostic keys and it isn’t restricted to theoretical descriptions of species and distribution

The subtitle of the ebook is “flower plants and bugs”. In mild of present information, these two ideas do not in any method cowl all the vascular plants discussed in the guide. Within the introduction, weak arguments are given for using the word flower plants as an alternative of seedlings, however nothing is minor, evenly counting is not a burden.

More than the primary fifty pages are a sort of introductory chapter, which might be mentioned extra intently on the finish of the article. The second half is an outline of species, about 700 pages. They’re arranged based on the classification scheme; first, the tribes deliver equilibrium, beguiling, then conifers, and then legacies. Within these groups, descriptions of the clans are stored on green leaves and within them are genera, one or more. – Tribes and clans are adopted by a ramp with brief pistols, which are frantic.

Unfortunately, inside the clan there are not any divisions between tribes. It might have been an amazing benefit to publish diagnostic keys to the tribes on the green pages, because there’s often a variety of clean area. The keys would even have had to attain out to the gossip, for they don’t seem to be described and inconceivable to determine by this ebook. For instance, 30 ferns are within the grass and in addition, nine are feces. They’re behind the part and subsequently it is rather sluggish to get an summary of all species inside the genus. This association drastically reduces the value of the ebook.


Broadly talking, plant species that develop in Iceland could be divided into three groups: a) home species, that’s, these belonging to the nation and have grown here for a long time, b) retaliation, but there are species that have buried within the country in current occasions and not reached permanent residence and c) cultivated plants for decoration or use. – There isn’t a clear understanding between these teams. Numerous cultivated plants are spreading past the crops and are then thought-about as retrenchments, and numerous crops achieve ground in vegetation and fall into national flora. That is typically a matter of opinion, which species are thought-about to be home or only extinct. For instance, Silene dioica and apple blossom (Mimulus guttatus) are thought-about to be the genus of the flora, but not the golden gill (Linaria vulgaris). Worse, although, many scavengers are released comparable to Pilosella officinarum and Doronicum orientale and troublesome to see for it. It’s typically troublesome to see whether it’s a new settler or an previous retriever. Autumn is claimed to be a brand new settler, but it’s stated that the species is first talked about in 1821.

In one other place, the time period sort shouldn’t be outlined. What some name one species, others need to cut up into two and much more species. It is subsequently unattainable to specify a sure number of species. I consider that 470 species are described right here as home and they’re thought-about Icelandic flora. Nonetheless, it’s shocking why there isn’t a mention of Eleocharis mamillata, which Hordur mentions on his website. Can it’s that he simply forgot? The chapter on lonewort (Ruppia cirrhosa) stories that different varieties of genus (R. maritima) develop in this nation, however neither the identify nor the image is included. Then Huperzia selago is taken into account one species, but not divided into three as is at present the case in most flowering books. I have previously explained these species (see: ahb.is/skollafingur-huperzia-selago/). Here they are, nevertheless, thought-about subspecies (= deiliteg.) And would have been fascinating to show footage of all of them. Then, it’s quite clear that, on the record of the Icelandic Institute of Pure History, H. arctica is registered as an unbiased species. A mountain lodge or a pavement case isn’t made the same as a scissors case, although it’s now thought-about an unbiased species. Extra examples could possibly be talked about. Only a description and an image of 1 crimson sort, but when reading, reveals that a minimum of three more grow right here. It might have been identified that some consider that mountain grass grows in Iceland, however it is true that Caucasians have discovered it. – Eyelashes (Euphrasia) are definitely robust. Glandular oocyte is reported right here as E. stricta, while others rely it as E. arctica. Whichever is true (or the names are synonymous) must wait better time, however this may need been identified.


The Icelandic names are commonest apply and are supported by Flóra Iceland (1948). Nevertheless, other names are often accounted for, however there’s a nice want for them to be adequately understood. Butter grass carries many names, similar to mountain tops, cocktails, last brides, trout grasses and scrapbooking. None of them are talked about in the ebook. Also, there isn’t a mention of ionic and ionic grass, cross leaves and chrysanthemums within the dialogue of medicinal grasses. Even worse, some names are misspelled; The grasses are grasshoppers, the grasshoppers are the grasshoppers, and the earglove has turn into the eardrum, because it grows solely on one penny. (The place should this one penny be?) Some places are much less more likely to have winter flowers compared to other species. That identify, nevertheless, shouldn’t be found within the style listing, only winter stone breaks. Local names are additionally not within the genre file, and many such names are omitted, for instance, pasture in Kelduhverfi and fingertips, in the identify of bluebell, are the most typical identify in some elements of the East. There are not any courses in the class file. Anyone who is aware of holly only as a fly-flower can’t find the species underneath that identify. Horticultural names carry countless names, however only three others are listed.

It’s typically reported who was the primary to tell a specific species on this country. That is wanted in addition to Joh. Gröntved from 1942. Nevertheless, it must be pointed out that it isn’t at all the best thing that claims concerning the assembly of indignant lamb plants in Vaglaskógur. The Forest Guard there had, by the mid-seventies, been saying that a yellow-flowered species was being grown within the forest, which nobody knew. A lot of the proof suggests that the species is comparatively current in the nation. It can be assumed from the citation that Hjörleifur Guttormsson first reported a sire in Iceland in 1988. It’s simply not right. In an article in Mbl. In 1985, what was just lately re-published within the magazine Týli is advised. Some locations describe the origin of the Icelandic names. Nevertheless, this doesn’t apply to the names of the charcoal, the skewer, the cannula and the identify melablom which was revived. Nevertheless, this can be a “normal” rationalization.

With the publication of this guide, there would have been full cause to revise the names of a number of Icelandic species. It will have been better to call a watercolor jumper in accordance with different names, and select one other identify for a kangaroo, which is a terrible identify. Because the genus of quarries is now divided into two, Saxifraga and Micranthes, it will have been applicable to determine the genus with a new identify.

Names of many descendants are totally different from those of people. This is all the time a problem and we do not say it. Nevertheless, I observe that the identify of the masking primer is canceled and the knot is changed. It also needs to be mentioned that when rich riches have been imposed, that plant names must be and not using a suffix, but unfortunately this is not followed in this e-book.


As is presently recognized, scholarly names of species are listed and taken Latin latitudes. Explanations of the Linnaeus' bipolar system are still very restricted. In a single place, the latter identify is “the name of the species”, nevertheless. In overseas instances, this item is known as the identify “epitet” and it was advised a few years in the past to name it a nickname. However, on this ebook, it’s extensively spoken that the nickname known as the “generic name” (see pages 352, 552, 599, 650), which is totally inaccurate. Exceptional, if the authors do not know better about Linné's binary system.

Authors use the word subspecies for 'subspecies', but not subspecies, which is rather more logical, except in a single place (p. 179); undoubtedly few will understand the word there. Then, however, there are written varieties for variations and have been. (varietas) for varieties. There’s subsequently little consistency within the things.

The Worldwide Nomenclature stipulates that the “primary type” must be recorded as a subspecies, if a part of the stock is distinguished, and then the identify of the species is repeated and not using a identify writer. The identical rule applies to variants (varietas) and variations (types). There’s a nice failure to comply with this rule within the e-book. See, for instance, a star-breaker. It says: “Another dispute. alpigena is in a mountain region of southern Europe… ”but no other subspecies are listed in the chapter. Those who are not at home in the naming rules will hardly understand how this is done, because it has failed to list the “main type” as a subspecies: subsp. Stellaris. Similarly, catfish (subsp. Islandica), and rightly so, ought to be a subsp. fontana and subsp. compacta Hedberg, for example. Then the chaos will increase, when a subspecies of winter flowers is known as “another species”.

As is well known, adipose belongs to the genus Scorzoneroides however to not Leontodon. The identical is true of apple blossoms, does not belong to Mimulus anymore however Erythranthe.

Then it attracts specific attention to the fact that the identify authors usually are not mentioned by the sort identify, besides within the headings. A myriad of scholarships, including all the gossip, is with out identify authors, and it alone shrinks the work as a journal.


The primary parts of the ebook are descriptions of each sort. These descriptions are principally similar to Harðars Kristinsson's pistols on the web site floraislands.is, which have changed little over a decade, if not longer. The power of the ebook is exactly in these notes, which are generally concise. Anything might be set out on the subject matter. First, the tithe is whether or not the species is giant or small and then the flowers, the fruit and the seeds are described. The outline of the stem and the leaf comes final, which is illogical. Although this is not absolute, the ordering of supplies is totally different and higher, for instance, within the sections on broad-spectrum varieties.

There are not any measurement standards within the ebook, however species are stated to be giant or small as applicable. Footage show me nothing to match the actual measurement, so the sandpit is about 15 cm in length, but in nature it is slightly below 4 cm, and it’s proven so long as the final scale, which could be 40 cm in peak. Descriptions are very offensive and typically trigger discrepancies. It’s stated that hematoma is usually associated with white flowers, but not with whites among whites.

In some situations errors have occurred. Flowers on peat and marmalade are stated to be 10-15 centimeters in size, however ought to be millimeters. Then moths of moths are stated to stand “slightly above” but in the midst of the flower, however they are “lower” as the picture rightly exhibits. Then you possibly can ponder whether a flower on a blue cap is in the shoulder or head moderately than a cluster as it stands. Then it’s stated that in mouse animals, the “seed is usually in ten styles”, but in line with Flora Nordica (2001) the types are solely 5.

Following descriptions, it is typically stated of duties and comparable species and identifies good diagnostic traits. These are often very helpful ideas, as there isn’t a doubt about Arduous's expertise in that regard. Definitely, there may need been extra peculiarities, similar to, for example, broad-leaved leaves of dwarf breeds and the size of the grapefruit on the cannula. For sure, repeating the distinctive features of each sort, as an alternative of referring to one another, would have saved a variety of area. Comparable species are also typically and ceaselessly reverse (e.g., pages 132 and 3). With easy diagnostic keys, these comments might have been omitted.

Following descriptions comes what could be referred to as “general knowledge”. This part is extensively used, but the accounts of every species are totally different, from virtually half a web page to at least one and a half. There are a number of issues happening there, and there appears to have been no general policy, what to do. This part of the guide is as fragmented as potential, and no try has been made to edit content material. Definitely, there’s one hidden drawback, but on the whole this can be a very poor part of the e-book making and it might have been better to read the proof sheets. For instance, on the identical web page, three words are stated to be plain, that the anniversary is another identify for the animator. And twice, on the same web page, says that horticulture collects the variegated age for winter supplies. In the midst of paragraphs on utilizing clippings, clauses have been shot about its remains in historic strata.

Specific consideration is drawn to the truth that a mountain mower “forms a long-earthed boy but, in addition, a thick ground rod that collects an ancestry and was called a wall. The mortar was dug up in the fall or spring and eaten raw or boiled as it says in a well-known verse: “Have children and a burrow, dug up roots and sprouts.” “- Never have I seen permission for this plant species to have been used for this high and I don’t recognize these lengthy above ground roots. Steindór Steindórsson and others associate this allegation with a teenage woman. It will be fascinating to inquire about this.

In a single place it says: “For some species of conifers, the seed resembles berries, though …” This is carbonless, as a result of it is a spider that resembles a berry, but inside it’s the seed. I do not intend to know this, however show that proofreading could be very missing. One other instance of a nasty reading. In one place (p. 63), “This is one of the most common equations in Europe….” However in the subsequent paragraph, it states: “Assuming this is the only place of growth for the child in Iceland…” The identify and burden are two totally different.

Quirky is the commentary or advertisement of Guðrún Marteinsdóttir's face art in a pistil a few trinity. It isn’t clear what kind of presentation it’s in this e-book.


The distribution of species is proven on maps for each species. It can be assumed that these maps are the identical and appear on the web site of the Icelandic Institute of Natural Historical past and on the website of Harður Kristinsson. However right here's something more than somewhat incorrect, as a result of as an alternative of “point cards”, the unfold is shown with green clumps, where the dots have collapsed. The unfold of many species subsequently seems rather more steady, however it is truly. The maps are an amazing disaster on this guide.

Typically discovered species are listed. Something's incorrect there. It’s stated that cumin grows “on Hlidarend”, however there are at the least seven cities with that identify in Iceland and not everybody is aware of that the farm is in Fljótshlíð. Then Geitafell, where Helgi Jónasson at Gvendarstadir found a pale stone, shouldn’t be in Reykjahverfi but the historic Aðaldælahreppur (now Þingeyjarsveit). In a single place it says: “… in Grímsnes, Biskupstungur, Haukadalur and Hrunamannareppi,” but as is well known, Haukadalur in Biskupstungur, and indeed in more locations.

Not all species are discussed in detail, but one is claimed to be “… missing on the flatlands of the South.” And on others, that “it is most likely missing from the plains of the lowlands and in the wilderness of Ódíuhraun.” South is “the same area as” the lowland “. It is said that gold grows “… in dunes to mountains in a settlement”.


What is extra concerning the ebook is the photographs by Jón Baldur Hlíðberg. I'm not going to say many phrases about them, as my expertise fail to take action. It is protected to say, nevertheless, that the majority of them are made with great craftsmanship, as Jón Baldur was hoping and pointing.

Helzt, I miss it, that there isn’t a measure of the photographs, as earlier than. For example, sandy flowers are drawn as long sprouts, however they’re often lower than 10 cm high and branched. Then I feel the stalks of a lilac too delicate and it isn’t to be seen that the stalk leaves of the foe are increasing, which, furthermore, pulls on the rod, as is the case. It will have been desirable to display an image of the chronicles on the magazines and then all of the papers on the cluster are missing. Just like beetle lilies, there are not any suppositories (petals) and the lengthy leaves of inexperienced lilies don’t seem. Then the proportions within the planting don’t all the time seem normal; see, for instance, a mountain meadow, where flowers appear a lot larger in diameter compared to the height and flowers of the sheep's meadow, moderately than unfastened leaves than the leaves.

About trolls rightly says that “the leaves are in the form of a trunk,” nevertheless it doesn’t seem within the picture, as the leaves are drawn up by a rod.

It might be that the rationale for these imperfections is that only one copy was taken under consideration, which was not representative of the particular sort.


It was not exactly the intention here to debate the words within the guide. However, it can hardly be potential to cope with problems with language, for a pot is broken. There are lots of examples of particular phrases.

Right here, just a few examples are mentioned: a) “Specimen analysis is difficult in lunar terms.” B) “Guide [Flóra Íslands] confirmed nicely the place we have been and where there was a lack of information concerning the propagation of the plants… ”c)“ Now, the pendulum has taken a sizeable swing back from the sixties… ”d)“ resembles a variety of other white species… ”e):“. typically the difficulty of life for the plant to have access to poorly watered and nourished vitamin. “(f) seeds have been” having a physiological hibernation “and in order to interrupt it, the seeds were” experiencing a warmth fluctuation “; . h) “He probably uses it [tjarnalaukur] distance distribution by waterfowl to move from the southwest to other parts of the country. “(i)” It is typically troublesome, after appearance, to differentiate these species with any certainty. “(j)” Genetic people of the butterfly are thought-about to be long-lived. “k) On p. 400 is said of a plant in the “European Alps”; the place are alpine elsewhere? l) “At world level, the carpet is very different in appearance and chromosome.” m) “This has probably not been examined in Icelandic strains.” There was worse. n) “The wire harness does not adhere to the north.” o) “far away from it” [plöntunni], it is far past the plant. – Many more examples could possibly be mentioned.

One of many opening chapters of the ebook known as “Flower Lights”. By way of this section, “colored flowers” and “tinted petals” are referred to as water-colored work; as an alternative of talking concerning the shade of the flower and the shimmering petals.

One is the verb that’s used in the e-book. It's the word “missing”. Within the minds of most people, the verb denotes or lacks. Instance: Still doorways in the home (than they arrive); you need warm garments.

Within the e-book, this verb is utilized in time and in time. A number of examples must be mentioned. For instance, “crowns are missing,” as they need to be; “Cup sheets are missing” on goat's cabbage, forestry system, and hedgehogs, and “riffs are missing” on the opposite two latter. “[H]missing marginal flowers “on a charcoal. (It should not be, however, that a charger should be like a daffodil.) – When it comes to spreading species, it does not improve. The goat's dog is “missing out on some scrapbooks” and “she's mostly missing out on the highlands,” and a crossfibre “missing from the Arctic”. Quite a few different species are “missing” on the other and these locations, as the e-book says.

I recall that it was as much as the flip of the 1900s that chemists identified that “carbohydrates” have been made solely of carbon and hydrogen and shouldn’t be associated to sugars or “carbohydrates”. However, this can be a misnomer, carbohydrates, used throughout the e-book. The basic nitrogen is either referred to as nitrogen or nitrous oxide. Then there isn’t any distinction between the terms vegetation and plant. In some locations, certain species grow “within another vegetation”, where applicable, that they grow within different plant species.

There is a lot about slang, unstated terms and false words. Speaking of “sterile flowers”, species don’t bloom, however bloom, besides in one place, of ravens, which “bloom entirely white flowers”. Hybrid is assessed as “heterocarpic species” and is referred to as “amphiatlantic strains”. The verb “surround” is often incorrectly bent (enclosed as an alternative of enclosed) and the inheritance plural of the cell is both cell or cell. The “day” (to day) doctrine is on many pages as an alternative of now, now or now. Then I don’t understand how the words “male” and “female” are conceived.


A person asks himself, who will use this nice and many good guide. Individuals do not take it with them out into nature, however they’ll lie on the bedside tables. Definitely, many individuals will love to leaf in it. There are not any diagnostic keys within the guide and subsequently certain varieties might be discovered slowly. Then it does not add chess, that only one identify is for each sort within the style file, which is so unobtrusively established, that it isn’t on the back, however in entrance of an extended chapter on references and sources. It is subsequently very sluggish to lookup it.

Right here, historical past has been fairly shortly in comparison with the dimensions of this e-book. A lot else could possibly be picked up. It have to be stated, that the e-book just isn’t as high-quality, and we might have expected it to be by Harald Kristinsson. The nature of the case has right here been targeted on what goes improper. Nevertheless, no feathers must be drawn, that the guide may be of excellent use, especially when it comes to descriptions of species.

Reykjavik July 24, 2019.

Ágúst H. Bjarnason

Key phrases: flowering plants • burials • flora • high plants • Hörður Kristinsson • Jón Baldur • Vaka-Helgafell • vascular plants • Þóra Ellen